Monday, September 30, 2019
Productive and Counterproductive Behaviors in the Workplace Employees within an organization can either contribute positively or negatively towards their employing organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s overall success and effectiveness. The organizations that ream the most productive behaviors from their employees typically incorporate motivational and leadership activities that encourage these behaviors (Jex & Britt, 2008). This paper will define counterproductive and productive behaviors and describe the impact those behaviors have on job performance and the overall performance of an organization.Counterproductive Behaviors Logic says that employees should want to do well in their jobs. But despite this logic, some employees do not. For various reasons employees will sometimes perform counterproductively towards their employerÃ¢â¬â¢s overall goals. Examples of these types of behaviors are ineffective job performance, frequent absence from work, unsafe behavior, turnover, theft, violence, substan ce abuse, and sexual harassment (Jex & Britt, 2008). These types of behaviors can result in high costs for organizations.Detecting Counterproductive Behavior The best way employers can detect counterproductive behavior among employees is to perform routine performance appraisals. There are several methods for performing appraisals, including electronic, production data, and subjective appraisals. Each of these systems has pros and cons to it, and are only marginally effective (Jex & Britt, 2008). The truly best way to detect counterproductive behavior is to interact with employees and monitor their job satisfaction. What Causes Counterproductive Behavior?An employee who does not perform well in his or her job may do so for reasons like lack of ability, interruptions from other employees, or poor task design (Jex & Britt, 2008). As well, poor job performance may result from elements in the organizational climate that provoke poor attitude, or, much less often, because of deep psychia tric problems (Jex & Britt, 2008). Once an employer detects a counterproductive behavior among his or her workforce he or she must try to pinpoint the cause of the behavior. One way of doing this is through the attribution process, in which the mployeeÃ¢â¬â¢s supervisor would evaluate an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s current performance against his or her past performance, his or her performance on specific tasks versus his or her overall performance, and his or her performance compared to other employees. By doing this the supervisor can try to determine the cause of the ineffective behavior and whether it is being caused by internal (lack of ability or motivation, poor attitude, or psychiatric issues) or external (coworkers, poor task design, or lack of tools) factors (Jex & Britt, 2008). Responding to Counterproductive BehaviorOnce a behavior is detected and the cause of the behavior is analyzed, employers must decide how to respond to the behavior. The best first response is to have the e mployeeÃ¢â¬â¢s manger discuss the counterproductive behavior with the employee in question (Jex & Britt, 2008) and determine whether the behavior can be corrected in order for the employee to retain his or her position. Once the discussion takes place the manager and employee can decide whether further training or coaching would encourage improved behavior or whether an Employee Assistance Program (EAP) would be beneficial (Jex & Britt, 2008).Of course, organizations would be best off to prevent counterproductive behaviors from occurring at all. This can be done by going to the effort and expense of hiring the right employees, possibly by utilizing the tools of selection programs to analyze potential employees skills and personalities. As well, employers should nurture their employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ skills and abilities to encourage productive job performance. Finally, they should also offer employees frequent feedback and measurement of their performance to help keep them on track with respect to organizational expectations (Jex & Britt, 2008).Productive Behaviors Despite the fact that some employees do not contribute positively to the organizations they work for, most employees try to perform their jobs to the best of their abilities and even go above and beyond their required duties at times. Examples of productive behaviors include positive job performance, organizational citizenship, creativity, and innovation (Jex & Britt, 2008). Assessing Productive Behaviors Organizational psychologists use various models to assess job performance.These models evaluate in-role (technical aspects of a given job) and extra-role (skills that transcend the specific content of a job such as communication skills and being a team player) performance by employees (Jex & Britt, 2008). These assessments allow managers to recognize productive employees and encourage and motivate them to continue in their efforts. Predictors of Productive Behaviors There are several methods that organi zations can use when recruiting employees to predict whether candidates will contribute positively to their organization.These include general cognitive ability, level of job experience, and the personality trait of conscientiousness (Jex & Britt, 2008). By evaluating these predictors, organizations can save themselves time and money by hiring the right people who will contribute to organizational goals without excess coaching, training, or need for reprimand. The Affects of Counterproductive and Productive Behaviors Clearly an organization will be affected by the employees that support it. Employees that contribute positively will help the organization move towards its goals, and, if innovation and creativity are present, possibly even surpass their goals.On the other hand, employees who work counterproductively within an organization, will cost management time and may require additional effort to be spent on reputation management, recruitment, and training (Jex & Britt, 2008). Org anizations would be best served to recruit employees with the most potential to work productively by analyzing their job experience, personality, and cognitive ability before offering an individual a job.References Jex, S. M. , & Britt, T. W. (2008). . Organizational Psychology. A Scientist-Practitioner Approach, Second Edition. Retrieved from https://ecampus. phoenix. edu/classroom/ic/classroom. aspx.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
The fair distribution of income may be the most value-laden of all economic goals; it is certainly the most controversial. When it comes to dividing the total national output, there can be many interpretations of what makes for a fair division of wealth, as there are people. The issue of income equalization is further complicated by regional differences, as identified in the article. The equalization program, which is funded through general tax revenue collected from all Canadians, transfers dollars to poorer provinces so they can offer programs and services reasonably comparable to those offered in the wealthier provinces, at similar levels of taxation. There is a controversial overhaul of transfer payments under study by federal government. The six Ã¢â¬Å"have-notÃ¢â¬ provinces are splitting $15. 4 billion in equalization payments in 2012-13: Quebec ($7. billion), Ontario ($3. 3 billion), Manitoba ($1. 7 billion), New Brunswick ($1. 5 billion), Nova Scotia ($1. 3 billion) and Prince Edward Island ($337 million). The other four provinces (B. C. , Alberta, Saskatchewan and Newfoundland and Labrador) are considered to have greater revenue-generating capacity and donÃ¢â¬â¢t currently qualify for equalization. The Conservative government has been examining substantial changes to the $15. -billion federal equalization program that could dramatically affect transfers sent to provinces and their ability to pay for programs and services. The concern in this article is the proposal, if implemented, could have multibillion-dollar consequences on hydro-producing provinces such as Quebec, Manitoba, British Columbia, and possibly Newfoundland and Labrador. Any reforms to how hydroelectricity is calculated in equalization would almost certainly prove to be one of the most contentious issues, especially in the hydro-producing provinces. The current equalization program calculates 50 per cent of a provinceÃ¢â¬â¢s natural resource revenues in determining its revenue-generating ability Ã¢â¬â or Ã¢â¬Å"fiscal capacityÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â and whether it deserves an annual equalization payment. But, the economic value of hydroelectricity isnÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily calculated the same as oil and gas, partly because of the difficulty in determining the value of hydro power due to a lack of a competitive market in Canada. However, any changes to how hydroelectricity is calculated in equalization could have a Ã¢â¬Å"huge impactÃ¢â¬ on how much Ã¢â¬â if any Ã¢â¬â a province receives from Ottawa in equalization. For example, some studies have suggested Quebec could lose billions of dollars in equalization payments if the true value of hydroelectricity were calculated in the program. If the true economic value of the hydroelectricity were calculated, it would amount to a larger fiscal capacity for equalization-receiving provinces such as Quebec and Manitoba and possibly mean billions of dollars less in federal payments sent to those provinces in the coming years. I feel that the issue of equalization payments with regard to hydroelectricity generating provinces is a controversial one. Although, my opinion on such is that these Ã¢â¬Å"haveÃ¢â¬ provinces (Quebec, Manitoba, British Columbia, and Newfoundland and Labrador) which are producing the hydroelectricity should be compensated for such. Due to the fact that hydroelectricity isnÃ¢â¬â¢t calculated like another resource doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean these hydroelectricity providing provinces should suffer. Currently, the equalization program takes into account differences in revenue-generating capacity among the provinces, but not the varying costs of providing services in each of the jurisdictions. Considering the revenues from hydro generation account for less than 20 per cent of total natural resource revenues across the country. However, hydro makes up nearly 80 per cent of natural resource revenues of equalization-receiving provinces, making it particularly important for distribution of equalization. Regardless if one province would suffer dramatically, I feel it is important to focus energy on this matter as the other Ã¢â¬Å"haveÃ¢â¬ provinces could also benefit.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Baker College Corporate Services Essay Franklin Delano Roosevelt was one of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest Leaders. His accomplishments are discussed in this paper in a biographical manner, as well as other Authors opinions about them, including my humble selfÃ¢â¬â¢s. This paper gives an example of a forward looking, charismatic leader. The whole population of this great country is benefitting from his accomplishments, and will continue to do so for generations, with only slight adjustments for technology and culture. Franklin Delano Roosevelt An Example to Remember When somebody asks to pick a favorite leader, a number of the great ones pop into mind, like Christopher Columbus, George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, Douglas McArthur, Franklin Delano Roosevelt among others. It is a tough choice. They were all great. Franklin Delano Roosevelt had so many great accomplishments during his life time; the only way to list and discuss them would be in the biographical manner the Author chose. The reason the author chose to write about Franklin Delano Roosevelt was the similarity of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s economy that he faced at the time of his first term in the office as well as our current president electÃ¢â¬â¢s choice to use some of his strategies to correct the present state of our economy. Faced with World War II, Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR), guided America through one of its greatest domestic crisis, His presidency, which spanned twelve years, was unparalleled, not only in length but in scope. FDR took office with the country mired in a horrible and debilitating economic depression which not only sapped its material wealth and spiritual strength, but cast a cloud over its future, not unlike what we are facing today. Ã¢â¬Å"RooseveltÃ¢â¬â¢s combination of confidence, optimism, and political savvy, all of which came together in the experimental economic and social programs of the Ã¢â¬Å"New DealÃ¢â¬ helped bring about the beginnings of a national recovery (Baliles, 2005, p. 1). Ã¢â¬ FDR also committed the United States to the defeat of Germany, Japan, and Italy, and led the nation and its allies to the brink of victory. This triumph dramatically altered AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with the world, putting the United States into a position of international power, as well as political and moral leadership. By virtue of its newfound political and economic power, the United States would play a leading role in shaping the remainder of the twentieth century. Inside the United States Franklin Roosevelt stirred a domestic political revolution on several fronts. Ã¢â¬ FDR and the Democratic Party built a power base which carried the party to electoral and ideological, dominance until the late 1960s (Baliles, 2005, p. 1) Ã¢â¬Å". FDRÃ¢â¬â¢s policies, especially those comprising the New Deal, helped redefine and strengthen both the country as well as the American presidency, expanding its political, administrative, and constitutional powers of the office (Baliles, 2005). FDR was born in Hyde Park, New York, in 1882, to James and Sara Roosevelt. His parents were well off, if not wealthy by New York High society standards. While growing up, they were able to provide a succession of nannies, and at age 14 send him to a prestigious boarding school in Massachusetts. He went on to Harvard College, where he spent most of his time at the college paper, where he declared himself a Democrat. While at Harvard, he grew close to his cousin Theodor Roosevelt, who was moving up the political ladder in the Democratic Party, and began courting his distant cousin, Elanor Roosevelt. Although FDR started attending law school at Columbia at this time, he had little interest and dropped out after one year. Elanor and FDR were married in New York City in 1905. He had six children: Anna Elanor, born 1906; James, born 1907; Franklin Jr. , born 1909 and died the same year in November; Elliott, born 1910; Franklin Jr. , born 1914 and John Aspinwall, born 1916 (Coker, 2005). In 1910 FDR ran and got elected to the New York Senate and was re-elected in 1912. One year later he began his tenure as assistant secretary of the Navy under the Wilson administration at the age of 31, helping to prepare the country for entry into the world war. He moved his family to Washington for this reason. WWI lasted from April1917 until November 1918. Ã¢â¬Å"On more than one occasion, he was subject to ribbing by those around him as being a Ã¢â¬Å"little boyÃ¢â¬ . Nevertheless, in characteristic Roosevelt fashion, he was undaunted by his lack of experience and plunged into the job with enthusiasm and confidence (Coker, 2005, pg. 28). Ã¢â¬ As a matter of fact, he did such a great job, that in 1920 the Democratic Party named him the vice-presidential candidate on James CoxÃ¢â¬â¢s ticket. They lost the election in November of that year. RooseveltÃ¢â¬â¢s most significant responsibility in the Navy Department had to do with labor negotiations with defense contractors. His primary goal in this area was to encourage positive relations between workers, industry leaders, and the military. In this capacity he gained appreciation for labor issues and learned how to handle sometimes rocky labor disputes (Coker, 2005). Ã¢â¬Å"FDR proved to have the exceptional ability to juggle various administrative and political responsibilities. Part of the reason he was able to do so many things simultaneously was that he insisted on bringing the indispensable Louis Howe to Washington with him to serve as his personal secretary. Howe seemed to be everywhere at once, assisting Roosevelt in all matters-scheduling appointments, helping with clerical work, and even helping Roosevelt keep an eye on, and a hand in, New York politics. Ã¢â¬ (Coker, 2005, pg. 31) In1921 FDR contracted polio, an incurable disease that left his legs paralyzed. By investing a considerable part of his fortune in renovating a spa in Warm Springs, Georgia, whose curative waters, together with strenuous physical therapy and the support of his wife, children and close confidantes, was he able to regain some use of his legs. By 1928 with the relentless help of his wife, Howe and a new personal secretary, Marguerite (Missy) LeHand, FDR was apparently sufficiently recovered to resume his political ambitions to run and win the governorship of New York. The very next year FDR had to cope with the stock market crash in October. The stock market was pretty volatile in the 1920s. With no regulation, Americans and investors bought stock on credit. By the second half of 1929 the economy slowed because of rising unemployment and high interest rates. When everybody started selling stock and found no buyers, the market nosedived. October 24th (Black ThursdayÃ¢â¬ ) and October 29th (Ã¢â¬ Black TuesdayÃ¢â¬ ) were two days that marked the beginning of the depression, although not the only cause. At the same time, farmers were taking advantage of new technologies, which caused overproduction. The Stock market crash, along with overseas competition, and urban areas lacking the income to buy agricultural products, caused those prices to crash also. Because of the prosperity in the 1920 over 80% of Americans held no savings at all and the rich stopped buying. Because of all these factors, 5000 banks collapsed, one in four farms went into foreclosure and 100,000 jobs vanished each week. By 1932 one quarter of this countryÃ¢â¬â¢s people in were unemployed (Baliles, 2005). FDR implemented a number of innovative relief and recovery initiatives: unemployment insurance, pensions for the elderly, limits on work hours, and massive public works projects. These programs labeled him as a liberal reformer and won him reelection as governor in 1930. It is important to note that FDR as Governor surrounded himself with best minds that worked with him in the State Senate, as well as some members of Al Smiths former gubernatorial administration, to solve his StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ problems. At the same time he had Louise Howe, as his chief campaign strategist and the head of the state Democratic Party, James Farley laying the ground work for a presidential campaign (Coker, 2005). In the grip of the great depression, the Democrats turned to FDR in the election season of 1932 to run for President. He was a popular and successful governor for two terms, with a recognizable last name, that could challenge President Hoover. He won the presidency in a landslide, promising the American People a Ã¢â¬Å"New DealÃ¢â¬ . Voters extended FDR approval to both houses of congress, giving the democrats overwhelming majority, which would prove vital in FDRÃ¢â¬â¢s first year in office. In his inaugural address, FDR promised the distraught Americans hope by telling them that they had Ã¢â¬Å"nothing to fear but fear itself (Baliles, 2005). Ã¢â¬ True to his character, FDR surrounded himself with a group of advisers nicknamed Ã¢â¬Å"the brain trustÃ¢â¬ . This brain trust included former progressives, liberal-minded professors and bright young lawyers. One of the traits FDR is consistent on is the ability to recognize when expert help is needed, and then surrounding himself with it (Dubrin, 2004). Ã¢â¬Å"An array of emergency measures proposed by FDR, and passed by Congress reflected three basic goals: industrial recovery through business-government cooperation and pump-priming federal spending; agricultural recovery through crop reduction; and short-term emergency relief distributed through state and local agencies when possible, but directly by the federal government if necessary. Ã¢â¬ ( Boyer, P. et. al. (2008). pg. 734) Ã¢â¬Å"Between March and June 1933, a period labeled Ã¢â¬Å"Hundred Days,Ã¢â¬ Congress enacted more than a dozen key measures ( Boyer, P. et. al. (2008). pg. 736). Ã¢â¬ These measures were all directed to solve every aspect of the depression, including regulating the stock market. Because so many people had been unemployed for some time, the help did not come fast enough. By 1934 the unity spirit of the hundred days was fading, industry was chafing under increasing National Recovery Administration (NRA) regulations. Even Nature seemed to work against recovery efforts. Between 1930 and 1939 the drought in the Oklahoma panhandle region turned much of the Great Plains in the Midwest into a dust bowl. Depression persisted, despite all efforts. FDR put great store in talking to the people, and he used radio to talk to them. He would talk regularly and informally on shows called Ã¢â¬Å"fireside chatsÃ¢â¬ about results and plans to help the nation and alleviate peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s fears (Boyer, P. et. al. (2008). At this point in his research the author remembered the first four chapters of required reading for the class. It is without exaggeration, when saying, that it is hard to single out any one part of these chapters to describe FDR. They simply seem written about him. From the definition of leadership to the nine leadership roles in chapter one, the personality traits, motives and cognitive factors of effective leadership in chapter two, to initiating structure and consideration and attitude and behaviors of a leader in chapter four. FDR had it all. If it has been noticed the Author left out chapter three, because this chapter dealt with Charisma and transformational leadership. It would not be fair to pick any part of this chapter in the authors opinion FDR was the embodiment of this chapter (Dubrin, 2004). While he was loved by the people, the new deal was criticized from all directions. Some saying that the New Deal was going to far, others saying it was not going far enough. FDR seemed to relish the attacks of his critics, saying that the New Deal protected the average American, not the rich. In 1935 FDR fought back the criticism with a series of legislation that eclipsed the first hundred days termed the Ã¢â¬Å"Second New DealÃ¢â¬ . He also lost support from the business community because of his support for the Wagner Act and Social Security. Both were the more memorable of FDRÃ¢â¬â¢s accomplishments, the former allowed labor unions to organize and bargain collectively, the latter set up programs designed to provide for the needs of the aged, the poor, and the unemployed, but excluding farmers, domestic workers, and the self employed (Baliles, 2005). Because of his popularity with the American people, FDR wins the election of 1936 against Republican Alf Landon by a major majority. What this proved, was that the Democratic Party was the major party in the states. At his inauguration he promised the people to continue to fight for the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s underprivileged. FDR put together a group of voters from different regions of the country. This diverse group became the core of the Democratic Party. It came to be called the Ã¢â¬Å"New Deal CoalitionÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"Roosevelt coalitionÃ¢â¬ and included members from different labor, racial, religious and ethnic groups, along with academics and intellectuals (Coker, 2005). FDR is first to realize he can not do it all himself, and has the presents and humility to put together a group that can give him, information, ideas and feedback from every segment of the population he is trying to help (Dubrin, 2004). FDRÃ¢â¬â¢s second term in office started with doing something about the resistance he has been encountering to his New Deal. The Supreme Court was on top of his lists of concern. They had overturned some agricultural and industrial New Deal reforms earlier and Roosevelt was concerned for future programs. He found it unbelievable that this body could overrule not only the presidency, but the Congress as well. He blamed it on the lack of vision of several older judges and was determined to do something about it. If they refused to retire or to die, he would find a more systematic way to protect his policies from them. He consulted legal experts and advisers within the organization and came up with the idea to expand the number of judges on the Supreme Court. In 1937 FDR proposed legislation stating that because the age of some of the judges, and in the interest of efficiency, adding an additional new and younger justice for every one of the sitting ones over the age of 75. Most of his opposition called FDR a dictator, but having such a majority in both houses of congress, the bill would have probably passed. Perhaps that was the reason later that year, that the Supreme Court upheld some state and federal legislation. By the time the bill reached the Senate, all the steam went out of the argument and did not pass. The possibility of the event coming to pass however, had such an impact on the Supreme Court that they have not invalidated any legislation concerning regulating business or expanding social rights for the remainder of the century. Having won his point with the court, he was finding the whole federal bureaucracy moving to slow for his tastes, started to bypass established procedures, creating emergency agencies to carry out policies. In 1937 Roosevelt had a plan for reorganizing his cabinet. It called him to receive 6 full time executive assistants, for a single administrator to head the Civil Service Commission, for him and his staff to assume all responsibility in budget planning, and for every executive agency to be under the control of a cabinet department. Although he did get some of these things passed by Congress in 1939, his opposition was able to paint him as imperious and power-hungry (Baliles, 2005). The Author can empathize with FDR on the point of the Judges, mainly because of a similar difficulty in his work environment, involving very high sonority workers that could retire and make room for younger people to work in this difficult economy. He would have told him that he is also of the opinion that any political appointment should not be for life. Frustrated by red tape of bureaucracy FDR shows a segment of entrepreneurial leadership (Dubrin, 2004). To top all this controversy, FDR also tried to eliminate some of the conservatives within his own party by supporting their more liberal opponents in the 1938 primary. This attempt was later labeled Ã¢â¬Å"The great PurgeÃ¢â¬ and failed. Of the 10 Democrats targeted, only one lost. All these were reasons the party suffered significant setbacks, as the Republicans reclaimed 81 seats in the House of Representatives and 8 in the Senate in the 1938 midterm elections. In the midst of these setbacks, international events were becoming more important and harder to ignore. During the internal struggle of the depression the administration had adopted a position of isolation and neutrality toward the rest of the world claiming the United States was dragged into WWI by trade entanglements with European factions. The Japanese invaded the Chinese Mainland in 1937 and the fact this happened with very little resistance, FDR considered responding, concerned Japan might be encouraged to continue to press forward threatening crucial United States locations in the Philippines. Although FDR wanted to respond to the threat, he relented to his opposition. He sufficed to publicly Ã¢â¬Å"quarantinedÃ¢â¬ Japan, mainly to express U. S. opposition to the invasion. He did ask and receive funding for increased naval development in the pacific under the guise of creating more jobs (Baliles, 2005). FDR shows his democratic leadership side as he cedes to the wishes of the population and the political majority and refrains from taking any direct and hostile action toward Japan. He probably realizes that the internal problems need the most focus as Japan has not physically attacked the U. S. Although, like the entrepreneurial and situational leader that he is, he sees an opportunity to use the goals of economic recovery and job creation to build up the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s defenses. The Author would most likely have suggested using this creative plan to enforce the navy in the Atlantic as well (Dubrin, 2004). In Europe, Germany lead by Hitler was also invading neighboring countries under the guise of reuniting Germanic people under one nation. As long as his actions suited his declaration, France and England were content to stay out of the action. Russia under Stalin, seeing the lack of opposition, made a nonaggression pact with Hitler, and started seizing territory in Eastern Europe, while Hitler invaded Poland. These actions in 1939 shocked the world, with France and England declaring the start of World War II (Coker, 2005). Throughout this aggression in Europe, FDR was hamstrung because of the neutrality acts congress passed between 1935 and 1939. Being as staunch supporter of England and France, he did manage to relax them in 1939, accomplishing two goals, boosting our economy with our allies able to buy arms and munitions from us, as well as supporting them. In a speech to Congress he voiced his opposition to the neutrality laws and his regret of signing them. Explaining that none of our ships would enter hostile waters, the allies buying from us would transport the munitions. He also refrained from using military language, afraid of loosing hard won political support, needed in the upcoming election. At this time decisions war vying for supremacy in FDR between the future of the nation and his political career (Baliles, 2005). It is admirable and probably due to his inner circle of family and friend, that FDR has the presents of mind to divide his concentration between the troubles in Europe, trouble in the country and making sure he wins the election. FDR seems to see himself as a servant leader (Dubrin, 2004). Although expressing concern once that the Democratic Party was becoming to dependent on him, he was confidante he would win the nomination and be a favorite in the election. After a period of indecision, that left the party hanging, FDR announced his full support for the ticket. He did win the nomination and promptly announced his intention to replace the vice president, conservative John Nance Garner with Henry Wallace, a progressive who had been a major player in the administration. This caused a major disagreement within the party as nobody wanted a change. FDR got his way by a narrow margin, simply because he threatened to drop out of the race and resign from the white house immediately (Baliles, 2005). FDR seems to let his position go to his head somewhat as his actions describe a section of chapter 4 entitled the dark side of charismatic leadership. It describes that the end justifies the means (Dubrin, 2004). The race was the most challenging so far for FDR. The republicans, taking advantage of the strife in the Republican Party, tried labeling FDR as unstable and warmonger. In return FDR was warning the public of the threat the republicans would dismantle the New Deal and destroy the progress it had made. FDR would win the presidency for a third term with a narrower margin than the last two. Without the concern of the an election FDR proposed a bill to congress, which he promoted through a Ã¢â¬Å"Fireside chatÃ¢â¬ as well as a speech in congress, stressing that while the country was a peaceful one, with no intention of entering the war, the country had a good neighbor responsibility to help defeat Hitler through the production of goods and weaponry and a Ã¢â¬Å"Lend-LeaseÃ¢â¬ program, under which the Allies could borrow military hardware to return after use. A bill was passed in congress in early1941 that greatly increased our help to Great Britain. As Hitler was fighting by now against England and Russia, having broken the nonaggression pack, FDR was able to increase the U. S. naval presence in the Atlantic on the threat that Hitler was out of control without breaking the neutrality act. This action caused our ships to come under fire, resulting in the sinking of several. In September of 1941, while mourning the death of his mother, FDR gave our navy orders to fire at will. Emboldened by its alliance with Germany, Japan attacked the U. S. at Pearl Harbor hoping to invade and secure the natural resources, denied them after their alliance with Germany, which they were importing from the U. S. before. On December 8, 1941, FDR delivered his famous Ã¢â¬Å"A ate which will live in infamyÃ¢â¬ speech, to congress asking for a declaration of war and getting it that same afternoon (Coker, 2005). Ã¢â¬Å"Despite Roosevelts lifelong interest in diplomacy, he never held illusions that he would formulate strategy in case of war. He did, however, expect to stay in close contact with his officers and surround himself with an able advisory team (Coker, 2005, Pg. 134)Ã¢â¬ . He also took similar steps to reorient the country for war production, creating the War Production Board to oversee mobilization soon joined by an Office of War Mobilization. FDRÃ¢â¬â¢s New Deal experience helped him create a cooperative venture between government and private industry to meet defense needs (Coker, 2005). During mobilization FDR brought about significant changes for the betterment of unemployed and minorities. Farmers streamed into cities, finding jobs, women were urged to work at jobs previously occupied by men and everybody was urged to join a union. Unions saw the peek of membership during these years. If the New Deal was slow in turning the economy around, although creating enormous deficit, the Second World War kick started the economy into high gear. Although reluctant and concerned about violating civil liberties, FDR, as was his policy in most military matters, listened to his military advisors and issued Executive Order 9066, which forced over 100,000 Japanese-Americans into internment camps, for security reasons. (Coker, 2005) Controversial and widely criticized later, this action was done out of fear of espionage. At that time, however not the Civil Liberties Union, nor the public objected to this action. If War was not one of FDRÃ¢â¬â¢s strong points, organizing, creating smooth transitions using programs such as Ã¢â¬Å"maintenance for membershipÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"no strike-pledgeÃ¢â¬ was. He used fireside chats to explain to the public the need for such policies, applying to patriotism. While researching FDRÃ¢â¬â¢s accomplishments during WWII, the author was amazed by his power of persuasion and organization during this time of mass confusion in this country. Had he lived in this time frame, the Author would have liked FDR to tell him how he kept it all straight (Dubrin, 2004). The outlook did not look promising for the allies in the first months of 1942, but things turned against Germany and Japan when the U. S. won victories in the pacific theater in 1943 and Ã¢â¬Å"D-DayÃ¢â¬ operation was a great success in France in 1944. On the home front, FDR had to concentrate internally again for several reasons. First the Republicans, having won major advancements in the election of 1942 in Congress, were making it almost impossible to pass legislation to fund the war, which mainly consisted of significant tax hikes. The Labor unions were also threatening to strike over this issue. Mainly the public was fed up with funding the war and having to do without. In 1944, FDR made it known to his party that he was willing to run for a forth term. The party acknowledged that he would be their best chance for victory, however, nominated Senator Harry Truman as Vice President. Although a sick man, run down from his years in office, his energetic campaigning and his medical condition, FDR downplayed the situation and convinced the public they should not change leaders in mid-war. He won the presidency against republican New York governor Thomas Dewey by 54% of the popular vote (Baliles, 2005). FDRÃ¢â¬â¢s stamina and drive at this point in his life is a little disturbing from the authors point of view. Highly regarded as a great leader, it is surprising he does not recognize his deficiencies and recommends the party choose a different candidate. But then, if his wife, doctor and friends could not persuade him to retire, the author doubts highly that his own powers of persuasion could have influenced FDR to turn the country over to somebody else, and concentrate on his health and family. FDRÃ¢â¬â¢s health deteriorated rapidly after the election. He would not live to see the end of WWII. Convalescing in Warm Spring, Georgia on April, 12, 1945; he collapsed and died of cerebral hemorrhage. His body was transported from Georgia to Washington D. C. and from there to Hyde Park, N. Y. for burial. Hundreds of thousands of people came to pay their respects during this final journey, attesting to the fact that he was considered the hero and savior of the 20th century (Boyer, P. et. al. (2008). Congress did limit the terms of a president to two terms shortly after FDRÃ¢â¬â¢s death. Actually, the Republican Party started legislation on this subject four years earlier, at the time of the last election. They did not pursue it on the grounds of seeming petty during the election. Over the decades the subject Ã¢â¬Å"FDRÃ¢â¬ , private life, political life and all his accomplishments, good or bad, would be studied by economists, politicians, and academics as well as students like us. One such example is a Policy Review interview of several students asked to compare the Contract with America which the 1995, 104th Congress and House Speaker Newt Gingrich promised to deliver in less than 100 days with FDRÃ¢â¬â¢s New Deal. The Author would like to show Quotes to prove several points. Sally C. Pipes, President of Pacific Research Institute for Public Policy Ã¢â¬Å"Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich and the new Republican House Leadership deserve thanks and congratulations for the successful completion of the Contract with America. What a revolutionary series of events has taken place! With the Contract, a promise to the American people was made; in a little less than the promised hundred days, the promise was kept. Of what other Congress in this Century can that be said? Ã¢â¬ (Pitney, 1995) Mike Siegel, Former president of the National Association of Radio Talk Show Hosts. Ã¢â¬Å"The Contract with America committed the House Republicans to raising and voting on each of the Contract Items. This was accomplished and should be considered a major shift from politics as usual (Pitney, 1995). Ã¢â¬ Deroy Murdock, President of Loud & Clear Communication. Ã¢â¬Å"Assuming the Senate and President Clinton cooperate, the enactment of most Contract items, per se, will not influence American politics as profoundly as did FDR in his First Hundred Days. However, the paradigm shift that has accompanied the Contract likely will parallel the new thinking that FDR inspired 62 years ago. Ã¢â¬ (Pitney, 1995) Mona Charen, Nationally syndicated columnist. Ã¢â¬Å"The First Hundred Days of the Republican majority were like a laser showÃ¢â¬âfull of color and sound, but so fast and furious that it was difficult for voters to single out the benefits of tort reform, welfare reform, or regulatory reform. Ã¢â¬ (Pitney, 1995) Jeff Jacoby, Nationally syndicated columnist for the Boston Globe. Ã¢â¬Å"So, no, in terms of legislation completed, GingrichÃ¢â¬â¢s First Hundred Days donÃ¢â¬â¢t compare with FDRÃ¢â¬â¢s. So thoroughly did Gingrich and his army upend that piece of conventional wisdom, that by the end of a hundred days, Bill Clinton was reduced to insisting he still mattered. Ã¢â¬Å"The President,Ã¢â¬ he sniffled in a mid-April press conference, Ã¢â¬Å"is relevant here. Ã¢â¬ (Pitney, 1995) William A. Rusher, Former publisher of National Review. Ã¢â¬Å"The First Hundred Days of the new House Republican Leaders will deserve that well-worn adjective Ã¢â¬Å"historicÃ¢â¬ even if relatively few of the measures listed in their Contract with America ever become law in the form they recognize (Pitney, 1995). Ã¢â¬ Burton W. Folsom Jr. , Senior Fellow in Economic Education at the Mackinac Center for Public Policy in Midland, Michigan. Ã¢â¬Å"The House Republican Leadership did most of what it said it would do in the Contract with America. The Republican Contract was a conscious, thoughtful, and usually coherent plan that went from campaign document to legislative writ. The New Deal was improvisational and contradictory right from the start. Ã¢â¬ (Pitney, 1995) John J Pitney, JR. Associate professor of government at Claremont McKenna College. Ã¢â¬Å"The House GOPÃ¢â¬â¢s First Hundred Day compared badly with FDRÃ¢â¬â¢s. Although all the items in the Contract With America reached the House floor, only two of them became law before the hundredth day. By contrast, FDR signed bushels of bills during the Hundred Days of 1933. Crisis is the great lubricant of the legislative process, and the economic calamities of FDRÃ¢â¬â¢s early days briefly suspended Capitol HillÃ¢â¬â¢s normal Friction. Government has become tangled in its own red tape. Ã¢â¬ (Pitney, 1995) The Author would like to point out, that there is hardly mention of the president of this time and then only to point out that he was left out of the loop. Apparently the House Speaker and the Republican majority in Congress decided they could upstage a Democratic President with a style of government by one of its own party example. As shown, none of the interviewees have lied, but it was entertaining to read just how much of the story a particular party adherent brings to light to prove his point of view. Clearly, the more is known of the story, the worse the scenario of the Contract With America sounds. We have just had a historical presidential election. If FDR started with having blacks, women and other minorities in high office, this country as a whole just elected a black man into the White house. In 1995 Congress took up FDRÃ¢â¬â¢s ideology but tried to upend the hierarchy. Since then the CountryÃ¢â¬â¢s problems have just gotten worse. Again the cry has started and the president has taken up the challenge and stated publicly that he would use some of FDRÃ¢â¬â¢s strategies. Immediately the media, economists and scholars exploded with the similarities of the state of the country then and now, advice and warnings to the administration. We are closer to the FDR era state of the economy, the sharp rise in unemployment, the near collapse of the banking industry and the essential pessimism of the population. FDRÃ¢â¬â¢s overall message is less caution and more boldness. The congress will also have a democratic majority next year and one of the most liberal caucuses ever, which should facilitate cooperation by past experience. Together with the lubricant of crisis stated earlier should help (Schlesinger, 2009). Two other similarities are contributed to Barack Obama. He unusually charismatic person and is a great speaker, which should help him guide the general public through this crisis. He has surrounded himself with an experienced staff, headed by Ã¢â¬Å"101st SenatorÃ¢â¬ Rouse. To get his agenda passed, he just needs to convince Congress to take some political risks (Drum, 2008). There is hardly any advice this Author can offer that has not already been offered by persons more qualified other than hope. Hope that lessons have been learned from history and similar situations. God knows this country has had most imaginable, and the Baker College Corporate Services. (2016, Nov 23).
Friday, September 27, 2019
On the RHETORIC of Science (Specifically Addressing the Form of Scientific Reports) - Research Paper Example Collectively, these diverse motivated and organized examinations contribute to a common representation of writing practices in the various disciplines and the connection of the procedures. The inspections of these fields help readers understand the procedures different disciplines employ to construct knowledge. This can be through different textual forms and types of challenges people must meet when learning to write within their respective fields. On the rhetoric of science and form, different linguists question the essence of analyzing the written work of scientists. Since past years, it has been common knowledge that scientists report their basic hypothesis and experimental results hence no need for in-depth analysis of their works. However, in the contemporary times, there has been an urgent need to analyze the scientific reports and experiments. This is because of the scientists need to gain followers for a given viewpoint or claim precedence for a discovery. The steps undertake n by scientists to convince their contemporaries and control them through peer review are a significant focus point for developing consensus. Despite this need to analyze scientific writings, some scientists argue and cite the steps taken in reviewing the writings. Science is a field that only few people venture in to and allowing analysis of scientific writings by unqualified people may not be appropriate. Reviewers have little knowledge of the science field hence any analysis made might be faulty. For any successful analysis to be done, reviewers need to understand the underlying science in the first place before any remarks can be made. On the other hand, analysts and reviewers argue that science is a field that is also susceptible to rhetoric. For instance, there have been non-scientists making successful reviews on science writings. The perfect example of such a reviewer is Thomas Kuhn analyzed how scientific paradigms transform as new interpretations of the problematic space a nd what counts as substantiation within the space take place. Rhetoric refers to the art of public communication and a body of principles pertaining to the fieldÃ¢â¬â¢s practices. Knowledge of rhetoric enables individuals to comprehend communication steps as they pertain to decision making. Rhetoric is a subject of significance since its learning enables individuals to understand the steps of communication which underpin decision making in free societies. Decisions and assumptions of public policy find their background from rhetoric, and so comprehending any of societyÃ¢â¬â¢s rhetoric will expand peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge concerning its ideology, laws, customs, and beliefs. In relation to rhetoric of science and form, there is a popular and widespread misconception that methodical communication is conspicuously dissimilar from other customs of unrestricted communication. Science is a master of disguise hence the need for public communication on the findings and experiments carri ed out in the field. Prior scientists played a vital role in placing science in English society. This was through creating the assumption that science deals with inevitabilities rather than probabilities, demonstrations, and arguments. Scientific communication contains all similar kinds of properties which other fields of communication possess. Majorly, scientists seem to be at the top of frontier knowledge, and most have no concern
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Project Management Mock Exam Paper - Essay Example Ã¢â¬Å"The benefit of utilising and understanding Belbin Team Roles is that not only do we learn more about ourselves, but also a lot about our work colleagues and how to get the best out of themÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Belbin Team-Role Theory,Ã¢â¬ 2011, pgh. 3). In BelbinÃ¢â¬â¢s theory, his specified team roles help delineate what kind of worker each person is within a group setting at work. It is obvious from the Ã¢â¬Å"Belbin Team-Role Summary SheetÃ¢â¬ that every individual contributing in a groupÃ¢â¬âeither as a plant, a resource investigator, a coordinator, a shaper, a monitor evaluator, a teamworker, an implementer, a completer finisher, or a specialistÃ¢â¬âhas particular strengths and weaknesses (2011, pp. 1). ... Teamworkers are People-Oriented Roles. Teamworkers want to make the flow of the group smooth, and will do anything to be cooperative. In fact, they will go out of their way to make any project operate like a well-oiled machine. Teamworkers are diplomatic. Not only do they avoid friction and drama, but they try to build a team instead of break it down. Typical teamworkers will always try to repair any fractures within the infrastructure of the team. Teamworkers are good to have around because they are beneficial alliances in the event that other workers are upset with the manager. Specialists are Thought-Oriented Roles. Specialists are self-starting, dedicated types who evaluates research. Additionally, this person finds specialized information that is difficult to find. The weakness of a specialist is that he or she tends to get weighed down in technicalities. These prevent him or her from becoming an integral part of any team. Although the specialistÃ¢â¬â¢s skills are invaluable, he or she might have to be dropped from the team if he or she cannot get past the fact that it is important to coordinate with the other team members. Without doing this, the team will not be supported and could have other additional problemsÃ¢â¬âthus ruining the teamwork. iii) Imagine an unbalanced team was formed in the group project, e.g. lack of one group type in the project team. What happens then? (329 words) Basically, BelbinÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of team-roles definitely seemed to make sense. Even in the face of an unbalanced team, various people can step up into place in order to take leadership in the team. One of the group members on the team who would be a specialistÃ¢â¬âhaving specific knowledge about the activity trying to be
Rusume workshop - Essay Example This shows a lack of work ethic and dedication, and these are two traits that are needed for almost every job. One thing that I did learn about the layout of a resume is that volunteering or internships can be included under professional development. I would have thought that only paid work could go here because that is what employers want to see; however, any type of work at all can be helpful because it shows experience and also a willingness to learn and try new things. It was very good for me to see an example of a resume because then I had the chance to compare it to my own one. I did create a resume a couple of years ago, but I have not updated and there is more information that I could now add. The thing that impressed me with this resume example was that everything was neat and tidy and in order. It was very easy to read because there was a flow to it. I think that employers like this because they often have so many resumes to read when they are hiring someone for the job. On ly the necessary information is included in the resume because otherwise it would take too long to read and the employer would not be interested. I can use this for my own resume by getting rid of information that is not really helpful to my cause and only include things that will help me get accepted for the job I am applying for. Something I learned from this part of the workshop was that the resume should try to include as much information as possible that relates to the job being applied for because this will help the employer to see what you are really good at. This is also why the bullet points under each job and/or internship are really important because the employer cannot gather very much from just reading about a workplace or job title; they need to see some of the job tasks that were involved because it will show what I am capable at. However, these bullet points should not be too long and they should not include information that is obvious. Some job titles have the same types of tasks, so there is no real need to mention them twice. The accomplishments should make you stand out from the rest of the applicants by showing some kind of special talent or skill. Also, the number of bullet points should be at least two and no more than four. I have been guilty of going against this rule in the past by including more than four bullet points and sometimes even up to six or seven. Having too many bullet points can get boring and make the resume longer than it needs to be, so I need to remember to be concise and even group some tasks together in one bullet point so as to keep content to a bare minimum. I learned that bullet points need to be positive. Also, they should be very impressive by playing up the tasks and skills that I have gained. There is no need to lie about something, but it is important to paint myself in the best light possible. The best way to do this is by including great detail about my accomplishments and showing that I am a capable worke r. Although the resume is important for gaining a job, I actually learned that the interview process is more important because it gives the employer a chance to assess my capabilities. Some of the tips were obvious, such as good conversation skills, strong body language, and also knowing the resume really well. I did not realize how important some of these things were, and I know that I could improve on them. A job interview is a formal occasion, but it is also a test to see if I
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
What does it mean to say humankind was made in the image of God (Biblical Anthropology) - Essay Example The issue is not with the revelations. Spiritual revelations of all the divine incarnates is one and the same, for they speak from beyond-the mind level, where bliss alone, the Eternal Light alone, revels. That perfect state transcends dualities or confusion. All dogmas are related to the mind-level understanding of the humankind. Perfection is not possible at this level. One has to cross the barrier of mind. Ã¢â¬Å" All dogmatism has this in common, that they are clothed with a certain authority. Naturally, the basis of this authority differs. Scientific dogmas have the authority of the axiomatic or self-evident truth. Philosophical dogmas deserve their authority from the generally admitted arguments by which they are established. Political dogmas are clothed with the authority of the government by which they are decreed. And religious dogmas are based on divine revelation(either real or supposed), and are therefore authoritative.Ã¢â¬ (Louis, p.18) But revelations are unquestionab le and are beyond the scope of arguments and counter-arguments. The essential difference between religion and spirituality needs to be understood. Spirituality is all-embracing for the entire humankind. If one turns the pages of history, they are daubed in the bloodshed related to conflicts between the different religious communities. Ã¢â¬Å"Hence this should not introduce God as an object about which man must speak, but as a subject which addresses man, and to which man must respond.Ã¢â¬ (Louis, p.11) When one talks about man in relation to God, the first question that arises in ones mind is the justification for the existence of an individual. There is a purpose behind ones arrival in this planet, a plan behind ones existence and a reason for the final departure, once liberated from the mortal bindings. Being born and to walk up to the grave is not the real purpose of life. Ã¢â¬Å"Christian religious faith is faith in the regeneration of man who is alienated
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Research Methods in Criminal Justice - Essay Example ion that making the commander ultimately responsible will serve to ensure that the commander himself/herself is extremely careful as to the fact that all regulations and protocol are followed down to the smallest detail, this also has a weakening effect on the level of change that the commander is able to institute as he/she is perennially concerned with the fact that he/she might be held responsible for one of the employees in their charge (Maxfield, 2011). In the way that the text described, the commanderÃ¢â¬â¢s efficiency in handling the daily task load he/she is responsible for would likely be decreased by the paranoia that such a policy would necessarily instill. A better manner of responsibility would include a healthy balance of the two. A situation in which the commander has to report for any wrongdoings of his/her officers concurrent with a high level of personal responsibility being instituted for the offending officer would likely be a far superior model. As such, it is the recommendation of this author that the proposed model be balanced in a way that both support ultimate responsibility of management while emphasizing traits of personal responsibility of the offending
Monday, September 23, 2019
Interview Questions - Essay Example These highlight the differences, however there are similarities as well, as both micro-level and macro-level analysis involve understanding how the activities of specific entities creates somewhat of a trickle-down effect on all aspects from either an individual level or wide-scale business/government/finance activities. Opportunity costs can best be defined as the largest-valued decision that is relinquished after a decision has already been determined. Opportunity costs are different for each individual or organization and they represent what has been missed in order to fulfill a different objective. For example, a student who decides they must take a full-time class load at a local university would have several opportunity costs: They would lose time with friends in order to study hard or they would miss out on working at their fathers business in order to receive a higher education. This is an important economic model as it indicates scarcity and further aids in decision-making to assist in determining what the best course of action is once a decision has been made. Suppose that more companies receive permission to drill for oil in Alaska and U.S.-controlled waters. In addition, assume that the popularity of SUVs declines in favor of smaller, more fuel efficient automobiles. What will be the result on the market (supply, demand, price, and quantity) for oil in the U.S.? How does this move the supply and demand curve? The demand for oil would be considerably less, as more fuel efficient automobiles represents less consumer need for gasoline. At the same time, with companies digging in Alaska (and other areas), the supply of oil would also continue to increase. When this happens, when demand decreases and supply increases, likely the most significant impact would be a temporary lowered price for oil, at least until the demand for it grew. Assume that before the dig in Alaska gasoline was $3.50 per gallon. Afterward,
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Roe V Wade Essay Goverment Essay 1. Roe V. Wade 410 U.S. 113 (1973) and docket number 70-18. The petitioner in this particular case was wade and the respondent was Roe heard by the Burger Court (1971-1972). 2. The case was based on the enumeration, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. Over non enumerated rights 1791. The ninth amendment was placed to state that this case was handled in a due process manner. 3. A pregnant single woman named Roe brought a class action challenging the constitutionality of incrimination of abortion. Hallford a Texas physician who was also under the gun, and certified to perform abortion testified on behalf of Roe. The basis of Roes lawsuit was in regards to saving her life; therefore, she did in fact have a basis to bring up this case. The Supreme Court also heard it because they knew that this was a staple case in history and they wanted to clarify the medical and legal views of abortion because a private matter especially in regards to a woman and her child had never been brought up before and it lacked a solid foundation. The Supreme Court also took into consideration two valid state interests: protecting the health of the pregnant woman and to protect the potentiality of human life. 4. The final Supreme Court decision was seven votes for and 2 votes against. 5. majority opinion and dissenting opinion 6. Roe won her case! The finalization of this case led to the instatement of these three guidelines for women still to go by today.
Friday, September 20, 2019
The Sustainable Event Management Environmental Sciences Essay This report will general introduce what is sustainability and to link all the concepts and theories to the Beijing Olympics. All the sustainability policies will link to the Triple-Bottom-Line theory and with suitable recommendations. The general idea of what International Olympic Committee IOC is about and the role of IOC play with the Olympic. All the economic, environmental and social impacts that did by Beijing during the Olympic Games. The environmental successful point and failures that the Beijing Olympic faced. How Beijing can improve or how the London Olympic can learn from Beijing Introduction The purpose of this report is to critically analyse concepts and theories of sustainability relevant to the events industry. All these sustainability policies will link to the Triple-Bottom-Line theory and suitable recommendations will be shown. Sustainability development means to protect the environment, but still meet the need of human, without compromising the future generations need and development. The term sustainability derives from a political and socially constructed terminology that supports the universal policy of sustainable development (Dresner, 2002; Rogers et al., 2008). In more recent times with a greater appreciation by nations of environmental matters and a move to a more sustainable society, the IOC requires the Olympic Games host country to implement strategies to protect the environment, observe concepts of equity and social justice and, where possible, minimise consumption of energy and water. The wastes minimise and to ensure that it is recycled as much as possible are the critical factors for selection when a country is bidding for the Game. The Beijing Olympic was the greenest Olympic ever, and will prove by articles, journals, etc. The aim and objectives To critically analysis the sustainability policy of the Olympics, create linkage to the Triple Bottom Line theory and provide sustainable recommendations for critical appraisal of the Olympics sustainability policy. International Olympic Committee IOC The Olympic were nearly ended in 1976 Montreal Olympics, Canada. Due to the large venues built and the investment was 10 times over from the original budget. Olympics not only need to carry a heavy debt burden but also damage the environment. Therefore, Olympics now focus on the sustainable development when the cities bid for the Olympics (Aim of Olympic 2008). One of IOC roles is to encourage and support a responsible concern for environmental issues, to promote sustainable development in sport and to require that the Olympic Games are held accordingly (IOC 2011) The Olympic Movement Agenda 21 was examined during the third IOC World Conference on Sport and the Environment in Rio in 1999, and approved by the IOC session in Seoul in June 1999. The goal of Agenda 21 is to increase the participation of local residents, to improve the social-economic and health benefits they derive from it, strengthen international cooperation projects for sustainable development, help combat social exclusion, encourage new consumer habits, promote a sports infrastructure which is even better adapted to social needs, and further improve the integration of development and environment concepts into sports policies (IOC 1999). The Beijing Olympic 2008 The idea of Green Olympic in Beijings bid was the strongest element to win the right to host the 2008 Games. The Beijing Organising Committee for the Games of the XXIX Olympiad (BOCOG)s environmental programme was focused on improvement, protection and awareness-raising. The Olympic venues were constructed by environmentally friendly and energy-saving building materials. Beijing has put significant efforts to improve air quality, expand forestation, enhance public sewage and waste treatment systems.(IOC 2012) When Beijing was awarded the Games in 2001, the IOC Evaluation Committee noted: Beijing currently faces a number of environmental pressures and issues, particularly air pollution. However, it has an ambitious set of plans designed, which are comprehensive enough to greatly improve Beijings overall environmental condition. These plans and actions will require a significant effort and financial investment. The result would be a major legacy for Beijing from the Olympic Games, which include increased environmental awareness among the population. (IOC 2012) As the first developing country to host the Olympic Games, US$17 billion was invested on environment initiatives by China for the Games. China was not only to fulfil its original promises in the bid, but also to gain great achievement on environment sustainability (UNEP, 2009). Greenpeace has made a evaluation conducted that the BOCOG and the Beijing government had created a positive legacy in terms of environmental initiative for the city (Greenpeace, 2008). The Beijing Olympics made a great environmental achievements, therefore, the Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau and BOCOG won the first-ever IOC Award for Sport and the Environment for Asia at the 8th World Conference on Sport and the Environment in Vancouver (Benjamin, 2009). According to Managing Business Ethics, Triple Bottom Line was defined as the impacts of economic, social and environmental (Trevino Nelson, 2011). The triple bottom lint of the sustainable development referred to the simultaneous pursuit of economic prosperity, environmental quality and social equity. Economic Impact The Olympics always help to improve not a city, but also a countrys economy. Such mega-event requires considerable investments in infrastructural developments, sports venues, and other types of industries. Therefore, these will bring both short term and long term effects on the chinas economy and publicity. Beijing reached its highest economic growth rate of 12.8 percent, a gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of USD 6,331, and the fixed assets investment of USD 3.527 million in 2007. Based on the criteria issued by the World Bank, Beijings socio-economic development is graded on a world ranking in the range of the upper-middle level, recognizable for example by the increase of the average annual wage of 109.4 percent from 2001 to 2007. For the Infrastructure Projects, according to the Beijing Olympic Action Plan, Beijings total investment in Olympic-related projects is expected to reach USD $180 billion and is divided into three different elements. The first part was used in the Olympic competition venues and the related facilities; the second was spent on citys infrastructural development; the third part was invested in projects, such as environmental protection and transportation. One of the largest projects was the enlargement of Beijings international airport, which became one of the worlds top five busiest airports during the Olympic season. In order to meet the high demand of air transportation a new terminal is being constructed amounting to a value of USD 2.1 billion, which will be the worlds largest terminal with a direct connection to the downtown area in 15 minute intervals. With the Number 3 Terminal being completed in February 2008, the three terminals of the airport will have a future total annual handling capacity of approximately 82 million passengers. Beijing has spent USD 700 million on upgrading its public transportation system, in order to avoid the traffic conjunctions during normal or rush hours. There are several projects helped to ensure the Olympic tourists enjoyed an easy, fast and safe travel from one sporting event to another. Six new expressways will link the downtown area and the airport as well as other cities of China. Six new subway and light railway lines will allow for better travel connection. Additionally, several bus lanes have been introduced whereby, during rush hour, all vehicles except for public buses must keep clear. All construction sites were using environmentally friendly technologies and measures. For example, all old buses replaced with new ones that possess updated catalytic converters. Recommendation Beijing should push the industrial technology to a cleaner production. Renewable energy technology as solar lighting, geothermal heating and solar PV systems should be promoted widely during the Game. Smart design and energy efficient technologies must be used as the building standards for new buildings. Although the BOCOG has introduced environmentally friendly policies guidelines for construction or purchasing materials, because it is not mandatory, companies may not follow the guidelines. Environmental Impact Improve infrastructure to both run the 2008 Green Olympics needs, the need for sustainable development to achieve the capital. For the environmental aspects, the BOCOG had set a comprehensive framework in order to coordinate all the sustainability projects. BOCOG started in early 2002 to design an Environmental Management System (EMS) complying with the international standard ISO 14001. (UNEP, 2009) The ISO 14001 standard is to establish an organized approach to reduce the impact of the environmental aspects which an organization has under its control. This standard helps the organizations to minimize their operational negative impacts on the environment (for example, air, waste, water), and continually to improve their environmental performance. The Committee passed the ISO 14001 certification audit in September 2005 and one year later was also certified according to the new 2004 release of the standard. Beijing has launched a new vehicle emission standard to EURO IV for the Olympics in order to improve the air quality. This emission standard is the strictest standard in the world. During the Games, 20% of the Olympic venue electricity was purchased from wind power station which supplies with clean wind sources. The first Beijing wind power generation station can generate 100 million KHz of electricity per which, that means this capacity can meet 100,000 families demand. 27 air quality sampling stations were set up, in order to monitor the index of sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM10). 18 temporary sampling stations were added during the Olympic Games. The Beijing air quality was improved by these measures. The air pollution was decreased by 50 percent in 2008, and SO2, CO, NO2 and PM10 were decreased respectively by 30%, 12%, 32% and 32% compared to1998. Beijing has built 14 sewage treatment plants and put in operation. The sewage treatment capacity rise from 320 million cubic metres in 2001 to 800 million cubic metres in 2008 and sewage treatment rate increased from 38 per cent to 90 per cent during the same period. By 2008, 57%of the citys waste water had been treated and reused. In addition, the citys forest coverage of more than 51.6%, the green coverage rate reached more than 43% of the urban centers, and the nature reserve area of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬ ¹Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬ ¹8.18% of the total area of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬ ¹Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬ ¹the city. (United Nations Environment Programme, 2009) Recommendation Although the BOCOG has introduced the Olympic timber purchasing environment guidelines, they lose the opportunity to introduce the internationally recognizable timber purchasing policy, for example Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) standards for construction material. The landfill development and waste incineration were the failures, for Beijing to use as an opportunity of the Game to move towards a zero-waste policy. Although Beijing had launched many long term measures to improve the citys air quality, they used temporary measures, for example reduced the vehicle numbers and industrial production were shut down. To make sure that during the Game the air quality meets the standards. Beijing could launched more clean measures to other cities, in order to improve the air quality and the air quality will meet the standards in long term. Social Impact Education (United Nations Environment Programme, 2009) BOCOG focused its projects on raising awareness of the environment in both primary and secondary schools, thereby targeting the younger generation of Chinese. The major educational initiatives include: The Beijing 2008 Primary and Secondary School Olympic Education Programme This program was worked with the Ministry of Education, 0.4 billion students involved and the aim of this program is to establish the Olympic Model Schools (to teach, practice and promote the value of Olympic). This program encourages the students to live in an environmentally friendly way. 200 Beijing schools out of 556 were nominated as Olympic Model Schools. The Reserve a Barrel of Water this Summer Initiative This project carried out in the primary schools. The aim is to develop initiatives of water saving and to promote the importance of water saving. Communication (United Nations Environment Programme, 2009) BOCOG has developed several initiatives to spread the message of environmental values among the general public. Among the major projects, it is worth highlighting: The Green Community and Green Home Campaign The aim of this project is to raise the environmental awareness among Beijing families and communities, for example to reduce the using the water and energy saving, waste sorting and green consumption. The Campaign launched in Beijing and 886 communities were involved by the end of 2006. The One Day, No Engine Sounds Campaign This project aim to encourage Beijing citizens to use public transport more than private cars, and to raise their awareness about the air and noise pollution. 504 institutions joined the Campaign after this has launched. The Beijing Green Map Initiative The project was developed by BOCOG and the Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau, encourages Beijing citizens to label the environmental and cultural facilities around the city. The Green Olympics, Green Action Team BOCOG was launched this team in 2004, and the Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau to promote Olympic environmental values, sustainable development principles, good energy saving and water saving practices and environmental awareness in general. Lectures and promotion activities were hold by this team in different places, for example, in schools, factories, universities, libraries and communities Olympic sponsorship maker Coca-Cola and Samsung are each given a commitment to the environment. The Coca-Cola Company has committed that natural refrigerant was used by all Olympic venues freezers and vending machines, excluding the climate change will increase greenhouse gases HFCs (HFCs). Samsungs commitment that all Olympic series phones SGH-F268 phone will not contain toxic material polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and brominates flame retardants (BFR). Recommendation All the Olympics sponsors who using the refrigeration equipments such as Coca-Cola, McDonalds, etc, failed to seize the opportunity not to use hydrogen fluorocarbons (HFCs) natural refrigeration equipment. Electronic equipment sponsors, such as Lenovo and Panasonic missed this opportunity, as they failed to provide products which contain without polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and brominates flame retardants (BFRs) and other toxic substances. Conclusion Beijing should continue the successful achievements on environment after the Olympic Games. Beijing had developed mass transportation and to implement the environmental policies and regulations are encouraging signs that the government understand the environment more. The Greenpeace urges that when the Chinese cities are devising economic development policies, they should consider environmental protection. As China is one of the fast growing economies country in the world and now China is facing serious environmental challenges, the environmental achievements of the Beijing Olympics, especially the long term infrastructural improvements, need to be spread to other cities in china.
Literary Techniques in Shakespeare's Macbeth Without literary techniques most literature would be colorless. Therefore these techniques are very crucial in producing successful writing. Not only do they create interest, they also help in development of characters, this is especially depicted in the Shakespearean play, Macbeth. The characters developed from the different literary techniques such as irony, paradox, and imagery assist in conveying the many themes throughout the play. In this play different types of irony help in the development of characters, and as a result convey the themes of the play. First, Macbeth invites Banquo to his feast, ?Fail not our feast,? says Macbeth, ?My lord I will not,? replies Banquo ( , , 29-30 ). This is an illustration of dramatic irony because it is known before this quote that Macbeth is planning to murder Banquo and that he will not be alive to attend the great feast. Consequently this quote depicts a lot about Macbeth?s character because is shows that he is very conniving and heartless due to the fact that he wants to murder one of his only friends, and his innocent son. This also follows the theme of appearance versus reality in the play. When saying this Macbeth seems to be genuine and sincere, but in reality the audience/reader know are already aware of his evil and vicious plans. Lady Macbeth speaks another example of irony, as she talks of her account with Duncan: ?Had he not resembled my father I had don e?t.?( , . 13-14) This is an example of thematic irony, because shortly before Lady Macbeth seems be very strong and determined but when she comes face to face with the deed she is unable to do it. This shows that Lady Macbeth is not as sinister as she se... ... help create the characters personalities and by doing this aid in the production of the themes. All in all Shakespeare?s Macbeth, accurately uses the literary techniques of irony, which show that things aren?t always what they seem; paradox which depict that sometimes things should be reexamined to find out the real or other then literal meaning of what is being said, and imagery which illustrates that putting images in peoples minds is one of the best ways to convey a message. Together these techniques develop the characters and themes in the play. There are many lessons to be learnt in this play, when comprehended correctly they can help one unravel some of man?s modern day difficulties in life. Works Cited: Shakespeare, William. A New Variorum Edition: Macbeth. Ed. Horace Howard Furness. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1915. Literary Techniques in Shakespeare's Macbeth Essay -- Shakespeare Mac Literary Techniques in Shakespeare's Macbeth Without literary techniques most literature would be colorless. Therefore these techniques are very crucial in producing successful writing. Not only do they create interest, they also help in development of characters, this is especially depicted in the Shakespearean play, Macbeth. The characters developed from the different literary techniques such as irony, paradox, and imagery assist in conveying the many themes throughout the play. In this play different types of irony help in the development of characters, and as a result convey the themes of the play. First, Macbeth invites Banquo to his feast, ?Fail not our feast,? says Macbeth, ?My lord I will not,? replies Banquo ( , , 29-30 ). This is an illustration of dramatic irony because it is known before this quote that Macbeth is planning to murder Banquo and that he will not be alive to attend the great feast. Consequently this quote depicts a lot about Macbeth?s character because is shows that he is very conniving and heartless due to the fact that he wants to murder one of his only friends, and his innocent son. This also follows the theme of appearance versus reality in the play. When saying this Macbeth seems to be genuine and sincere, but in reality the audience/reader know are already aware of his evil and vicious plans. Lady Macbeth speaks another example of irony, as she talks of her account with Duncan: ?Had he not resembled my father I had don e?t.?( , . 13-14) This is an example of thematic irony, because shortly before Lady Macbeth seems be very strong and determined but when she comes face to face with the deed she is unable to do it. This shows that Lady Macbeth is not as sinister as she se... ... help create the characters personalities and by doing this aid in the production of the themes. All in all Shakespeare?s Macbeth, accurately uses the literary techniques of irony, which show that things aren?t always what they seem; paradox which depict that sometimes things should be reexamined to find out the real or other then literal meaning of what is being said, and imagery which illustrates that putting images in peoples minds is one of the best ways to convey a message. Together these techniques develop the characters and themes in the play. There are many lessons to be learnt in this play, when comprehended correctly they can help one unravel some of man?s modern day difficulties in life. Works Cited: Shakespeare, William. A New Variorum Edition: Macbeth. Ed. Horace Howard Furness. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1915.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
If You DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Want Them To Know Something, Put In A Book, TheyÃ¢â¬â¢ll Never Read It! :: Personal Narrative Writing
Ã¢â¬Å"If You DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Want Them To Know Something, Put In A Book, TheyÃ¢â¬â¢ll Never Read It!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"If you donÃ¢â¬â¢t want them to know something, put it in a book, theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll never read it.Ã¢â¬ This was a saying that was widely during and after desegregation of the schools, and as I know is still being used today, to display the ignorance and lack of knowledge of African-Americans. The sad fact is that it is true. If it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t come across the television or radio, then most people donÃ¢â¬â¢t know what is going on. Most people that I know watches television rather than go to school. As an African-American, it was very important for me to learn to read, write, and obtain a quality education. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s amazing to see the carelessness that many people take toward getting a good education. Many of my ancestors lost their lives for just wanting to read and write, but now that African-Americans have the opportunity to do these things, hardly anyone takes advantage of it. For me, as an African-American, education is extremely important because many affluent peop le like Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Mary McCloud Bethune, and Linda Brown, fought Ã¢â¬Å"tooth and nailÃ¢â¬ and lost much of their blood, sweat, and tears to ensure that we were properly educated. Over the years I have adopted a slogan, Ã¢â¬Å"If itÃ¢â¬â¢s free, itÃ¢â¬â¢s for meÃ¢â¬ . Although public education is free today, someone no doubt lost his or her life for me to sit in a classroom to learn. I try to take advantage of every opportunity I get to read and write because I can never learn too much. I was raised in the north end of Hartford, Connecticut. I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t say that the city was impoverished, but it was far from perfect. It was similar to most northern big cities, rampant with drugs, violence, and crime. In just one week there could have been anywhere from 10-15 burglaries, which probably accounted for the degree to which owners were protective of their businesses. When I passed most stores at night or after their closing times, I saw that they were guarded with security doors and steel bars on the windows. But for as long as I can remember, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve never seen any bars or security doors protecting the libraries, which goes to prove the point that Ã¢â¬Å"If you donÃ¢â¬â¢t want them to know something, put it in a book, theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll never read it.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
The incompatibility for the game between Israel and Iran is because Iran would not play by the same set of rules that were set between the United States and Russia during the Cold War. This assumption is based on IranÃ¢â¬â¢s own unique scenario in a regional game in the Middle East, as well as IranÃ¢â¬â¢s history to avoid inside the box thinking when it comes to strategic warfare. Tira concludes that the unreliability accompanying the areaÃ¢â¬â¢s instability and IranÃ¢â¬â¢s known use of creating black swans to continuously push and wear down an opponent, shows that if a nuclear Iran were to develop it would be a major threat not to be taken lightly. The conclusion that Tira arrives at is very helpful in explaining why Israel is not fond of Russia assisting Iran develop its nuclear program further than where it already stands. IV. Findings and Analysis To understand why Israel is concerned with Iran, it is first imperative to understand the Iranian nuclear programÃ¢â¬â¢s history and the extent of IranÃ¢â¬â¢s current program. The goal to obtain a sufficient nuclear energy program has been a long standing goal for Iran. IranÃ¢â¬â¢s first reactor, the Tehran Research Reactor, was established in 1967 and since then has seen nuclear energy and the possible gains of a nuclear arsenal as an insurance policy in the survivability to the current regime (Collina and others 2013, 3). To increase its capacity for production Iran has also worked with Russia to build the Bushehr reactor, which was completed in 2011 (Katz 2012, 58). On top of these two sites, Iran has many more facilities that help in the production of nuclear energy, as well as nuclear enrichment facilities. These enrichment facilities, which were publicly recognized by Iran in 2003 had been kept hidden... ....1080/10736700.2013.769375. (Accessed November 9, 2013). Katz, Mark N. 2012. "Russia and Iran." Middle East Policy 19, no. 3: 54-64. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy2.apus.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=aab26c60-18b8-40e7-8764-bddcc193eee9%40sessionmgr115&vid=5&hid=103 (Accessed November 20, 2013). Shenna, J. C. (2010). Ã¢â¬Å"The Case Against the Case Against Iran: Regionalism as the West's Last FrontierÃ¢â¬ . The Middle East Journal, 64(3), 341-363. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/744027301?accountid=8289. (Accessed November 9, 2013). Tira, Ron. 2011. "Can Iran be Deterred?." Policy Review no. 169: 39-48. Retrieved from EBSCOhost http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy2.apus.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=aab26c60-18b8-40e7-8764-bddcc193eee9%40sessionmgr115&vid=7&hid=103 (Accessed November 20, 2013). Israel and Iran's Incompatibility Essay -- Bushehr, Iran, Israel The incompatibility for the game between Israel and Iran is because Iran would not play by the same set of rules that were set between the United States and Russia during the Cold War. This assumption is based on IranÃ¢â¬â¢s own unique scenario in a regional game in the Middle East, as well as IranÃ¢â¬â¢s history to avoid inside the box thinking when it comes to strategic warfare. Tira concludes that the unreliability accompanying the areaÃ¢â¬â¢s instability and IranÃ¢â¬â¢s known use of creating black swans to continuously push and wear down an opponent, shows that if a nuclear Iran were to develop it would be a major threat not to be taken lightly. The conclusion that Tira arrives at is very helpful in explaining why Israel is not fond of Russia assisting Iran develop its nuclear program further than where it already stands. IV. Findings and Analysis To understand why Israel is concerned with Iran, it is first imperative to understand the Iranian nuclear programÃ¢â¬â¢s history and the extent of IranÃ¢â¬â¢s current program. The goal to obtain a sufficient nuclear energy program has been a long standing goal for Iran. IranÃ¢â¬â¢s first reactor, the Tehran Research Reactor, was established in 1967 and since then has seen nuclear energy and the possible gains of a nuclear arsenal as an insurance policy in the survivability to the current regime (Collina and others 2013, 3). To increase its capacity for production Iran has also worked with Russia to build the Bushehr reactor, which was completed in 2011 (Katz 2012, 58). On top of these two sites, Iran has many more facilities that help in the production of nuclear energy, as well as nuclear enrichment facilities. These enrichment facilities, which were publicly recognized by Iran in 2003 had been kept hidden... ....1080/10736700.2013.769375. (Accessed November 9, 2013). Katz, Mark N. 2012. "Russia and Iran." Middle East Policy 19, no. 3: 54-64. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy2.apus.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=aab26c60-18b8-40e7-8764-bddcc193eee9%40sessionmgr115&vid=5&hid=103 (Accessed November 20, 2013). Shenna, J. C. (2010). Ã¢â¬Å"The Case Against the Case Against Iran: Regionalism as the West's Last FrontierÃ¢â¬ . The Middle East Journal, 64(3), 341-363. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/744027301?accountid=8289. (Accessed November 9, 2013). Tira, Ron. 2011. "Can Iran be Deterred?." Policy Review no. 169: 39-48. Retrieved from EBSCOhost http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy2.apus.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=aab26c60-18b8-40e7-8764-bddcc193eee9%40sessionmgr115&vid=7&hid=103 (Accessed November 20, 2013).
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Hughes was fascinated by the Ã¢â¬Ëanimism' of ancient cultures, especially American Indians. Animism is the belief that spirits live inside all the parts of nature. Hughes poem seems to conjure the fierce spirit of a kind of Hawk God. In this poem, Hughes writes in the imagined voice of a hawk. The hawk, in other words, is personified. For the sake of simplicity, I will call the hawk Ã¢â¬Ëhe'. The hawk's tone of voice is proud, arrogant, he thinks of himself as master of his world. Indeed, like a God, he has power over life and death.His whole life is spent either being in Ã¢â¬Ësleep' or hunting for prey. And even when he is asleep he dreams of mastering his hunting and killing technique. The physical description the hawk gives of itself, Ã¢â¬ËBetween my hooked head and hooked feet', confirms this obsession. Its weapons, the hooks, are the things that matter most to the bird. The hawk says that he has no Ã¢â¬Ëfalsifying dream', nor any Ã¢â¬Ësophistry' within himself, and that Ã¢â¬Ëno arguments assert' his rights. Sophistry means false, but clever arguments.In other words then, unlike humans, the bird is free of rules and regulations, it does not have to justify itself to anything or anyone. Imagery Hughes achieves some of his effects in this poem by changing the scale of things. The small hawk imagines itself to be as big as a God: Ã¢â¬ËNow I hold Creation in my foot Or fly up and revolve it slowly. Ã¢â¬Ë It is as if the world is only spinning because the hawk's claw turns it looking for its next victim. Form The poem is set out in six equal, four line stanzas. Unlike Ã¢â¬ËWork and Play' there is no development or change in form at the end of the poem.Why not? Because the Hawk will not allow change/does not want change. It is happy with the way things are arranged. The world of the hawk is ordered, neat, efficient, controlled, and the form of the poem matches those qualities. The lines are fairly short and many end with full stops. For insta nce, the four statements, of apparent facts, in the last stanza all end with full-stops. Do the full-stops suggest ends, finality, death and in this poem certainty? Certainly the factual tone and the end-stopped, full-stopped lines suggest the hawk would not put up with any arguments.The combined effect is menacing. Summary Subject: Hughes personifies a hawk. He describes it as a survivor and a killer. He compares the hawk's freedom to act on instinct with the way we are ruled by thoughts, arguments and regulations. ATTITUDE : The hawks' attitude is arrogant; its tone is menacing, confident, absolute, and boastful. The hawk sees itself as like a king, or a god or an executioner. Hughes's attitude is more difficult to tell. He leaves the poem open for the reader to decide on how to react to this fierce spirit.Could we just laugh at the small hawk's grand deluded view of itself? Style Almost every image refers to the hawk's control and confidence. Everything revolves around the hawk. Look at the number of times Ã¢â¬ËI', Ã¢â¬Ëme' or Ã¢â¬Ëmy' is used There are lots of short, factual sounding statements in the poem, and a lot of full-stops. These help to convey the bird's certainty. Hughes appears to be using the hawk in this poem as a symbol for power. A hawk would of course act instinctively and kill for the purposes of survival.The implications of Ã¢â¬Å"Hawk RoostingÃ¢â¬ are therefore that the poem is an extended metaphor for the behaviour of a tyrant or power-seeking ruler. Such a person would, as the hawk is in this poem, be self-centred and arrogant. An authoritarian despot would not allow himself or his methods to be questioned, and would see the world around him as being designed to suit his purposes. Ted Hughes, in Ã¢â¬Å"Hawk Roosting,Ã¢â¬ paints a picture of a creature that is ruthless and self-involved, showing how a lust for power can take over a being and end in brutality. STRUCTUREThe structure of the poem is regular, with verses of four lines each and similar length lines which creates a feeling of tight control that adds to the theme of power and perfect balance in the hawk. The punctuation is equally tight, with many sentences contained within the line, which gives an abrupt, sharp, controlled feel. However, there is some enjambement which breaks free of the stanza to run across the line break, as if the hawk can disregard the rules, creating a flowing effect as he lists his powers. THEMES Ã¢â¬â IMAGERY Many nature poems deal with the beauty of nature and GodÃ¢â¬â¢s power as creator.This poem subverts these expectations. Here, nature is brutal: it Ã¢â¬ËkillsÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËeatsÃ¢â¬â¢. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s slightly disturbing is that the hawk views these as Ã¢â¬ËperfectÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ërehearses themÃ¢â¬â¢. This almost gives the feel of a psychopath, yet he is only fulfilling his natural function. The repetition of Ã¢â¬ËhookedÃ¢â¬â¢ from his head to his feet creates a feel of being captured, evok ing his sharp, deadly beak and claws. These are the parts that the hawk emphasizes when he describes himself. The hawk deals in Ã¢â¬ËdeathÃ¢â¬â¢. Hughes uses the metaphor of the bird flying direct Ã¢â¬Ëthrough the bones of the livingÃ¢â¬â¢.The uneasy juxtaposition of bones with living creates an unsettling effect, and makes the bird seem almost supernaturally powerful: as if he exists beyond this one moment in time. The voice of the bird displays god-like arrogance [hubris]. He judges that earth Ã¢â¬Ëholds itself upwards for my inspectionÃ¢â¬â¢, as if the world only exists for his benefit. The Hawk frequently uses Ã¢â¬ËmeÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËmyÃ¢â¬â¢, which shows a possessive, self-focussed streak. He says he holds Ã¢â¬ËCreation in my footÃ¢â¬â¢. This is a literal, visual image of the bird in flight and the earth seeming small below, but also a metaphor of power.Hughes deliberately subverts [turns upside down] traditional nature poems on the majesty of creation. T he hawk lists natural features: Ã¢â¬ËsunÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËairÃ¢â¬â¢ and the Ã¢â¬ËtreeÃ¢â¬â¢, which he thinks exist only in as much as they are of Ã¢â¬Ëadvantage to meÃ¢â¬â¢. He also says it took Ã¢â¬Ëthe whole of CreationÃ¢â¬â¢ to produce his Ã¢â¬ËfeatherÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËfootÃ¢â¬â¢: the juxtaposition of something so huge and old, and biblical against a tiny foot/feather, shows how magnificent the bird thinks he is: as if he is the reason creation exists.This is interesting because it twists the traditional anthropocentric world view (i.e. humans are the peak of creation, the whole point of it all), that is set down in Genesis. When he flies up he says he will Ã¢â¬ËrevolveÃ¢â¬â¢ the world slowly Ã¢â¬â as if he is making it turn. He gives the gift (Ã¢â¬ËallotmentÃ¢â¬â¢) of death, which is an ironic juxtaposition as no one would want to receive this gift. It is as if heÃ¢â¬â¢s the god of death. He says he has Ã¢â¬Ëpermitted no changeÃ¢â¬â¢ and end s with a final, simple declarative statement Ã¢â¬ËI am going to keep things like thisÃ¢â¬â¢. The use of Ã¢â¬ËamÃ¢â¬â¢ stresses his power. He doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t say Ã¢â¬ËwillÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËmightÃ¢â¬â¢; heÃ¢â¬â¢s certain.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Dakota Office Products Study Case Why was DakotaÃ¢â¬â¢s existing pricing system inadequate for its current operating environment? Ã¢â¬â profits only when clients placed large orders for cartons Ã¢â¬â real drop of profit if many clients place small orders Ã¢â¬â wrong cost determination for individual customers wrong cost determination for new services provided by DOP (to small charges for the Ã¢â¬Å"desktopÃ¢â¬ delivery, then the actual cost of it) 2. Develop an activity-base cost system for Dakota Office Products based on Year 200 data. Calculate the activity cost-driver rate for each DOP activity in 2000. Activity cost-driver rates: Activity One: process cartons in and out of the facility Rate=(90% of Warehouse Personnel Expense + Cost o Items Purchased)/cartons processed Rate=(90%*2,400,000+35,000,000)/80,000=464. 5 $/per carton Activity Two: the new desktop delivery service Rate=(10% of Warehouse Personnel Expense + Delivery Truck Expenses)/desktop deliveries Rate=(10%2,400,000+200,000)/2000=220 $/per carton Activity Three: order handling Rate=( Warehouse Expenses + Freight)/ number of orders Rate=(2,000,000+450,000)/(16,000+8,000)=102. 08 $/per order Activity Four: data entry Rate=Order entry expenses/Order lines Rate=800,000/150,000=5. 3 orders/per line 3. Using your answer to question 2, calculate the profitability of Customer A and Customer B. Activity One: process cartons in and out of the facility Ã¢â¬â> Number of cartons ordered Activity Two: the new desktop delivery service Ã¢â¬â> Number of desktop deliveries Activity Three: order handling Ã¢â¬â> Number of orders (manual + EDI) Activity Four: data entry Ã¢â¬â> Number of line items Manufacturing Overhead cost-driver rates Customer A Customer B Customer AÃ¢â¬ ¦ Dakota Office Products Dakota Office Products Study Case Why was DakotaÃ¢â¬â¢s existing pricing system inadequate for its current operating environment? Ã¢â¬â profits only when clients placed large orders for cartons Ã¢â¬â real drop of profit if many clients place small orders Ã¢â¬â wrong cost determination for individual customers wrong cost determination for new services provided by DOP (to small charges for the Ã¢â¬Å"desktopÃ¢â¬ delivery, then the actual cost of it) 2. Develop an activity-base cost system for Dakota Office Products based on Year 200 data. Calculate the activity cost-driver rate for each DOP activity in 2000. Activity cost-driver rates: Activity One: process cartons in and out of the facility Rate=(90% of Warehouse Personnel Expense + Cost o Items Purchased)/cartons processed Rate=(90%*2,400,000+35,000,000)/80,000=464. 5 $/per carton Activity Two: the new desktop delivery service Rate=(10% of Warehouse Personnel Expense + Delivery Truck Expenses)/desktop deliveries Rate=(10%2,400,000+200,000)/2000=220 $/per carton Activity Three: order handling Rate=( Warehouse Expenses + Freight)/ number of orders Rate=(2,000,000+450,000)/(16,000+8,000)=102. 08 $/per order Activity Four: data entry Rate=Order entry expenses/Order lines Rate=800,000/150,000=5. 3 orders/per line 3. Using your answer to question 2, calculate the profitability of Customer A and Customer B. Activity One: process cartons in and out of the facility Ã¢â¬â> Number of cartons ordered Activity Two: the new desktop delivery service Ã¢â¬â> Number of desktop deliveries Activity Three: order handling Ã¢â¬â> Number of orders (manual + EDI) Activity Four: data entry Ã¢â¬â> Number of line items Manufacturing Overhead cost-driver rates Customer A Customer B Customer AÃ¢â¬ ¦